Saturday, March 14, 2020

Essay on Americanism

Essay on Americanism Essay on Americanism Essay on AmericanismAmericanism has never been associated with the issues of race, gender and ancestry in the past. Franklin D. Roosevelt once said that to be an American has always been a, â€Å"Matter of mind and heart† and â€Å"nevera matter of race or ancestry.† To â€Å"race and ancestry,† one might add gender. In other words, to be an American means to be filled with Americanism, demonstrate American identity in behavior, thoughts and actions, protecting freedom and independence of the nation. Nearly all Founding Fathers, e.g. George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, or John Adam reflected the meaning of Americanism in the development of the nation, portraying â€Å"the vast majority of ordinary Americans as mere bystanders.†1 However, other historians have provided the documentation that proves that â€Å"the 95 percent of Americans who were not members of the founding-era gentry shaped the independence movement and Revolutionary War and were in turn influenced by both.† 2 This fact means the ideology of true Americans reflects the ideas of Americanism. Historian and scholars provide a wide range of interpretations of the meaning of Americanism in the history of the U.S., as well as its impact on other nations. The ideals of Americanism had been practices in the development of progressive politics of the U.S. and had a strong impact on the quality of American democracy.   Thesis statement: Being an American in the past has been a matter of heart and mind and has never been a matter of race, gender or ancestry because Americanism is an ideology that reflects national identity and is based on freedom of American nation.To start with, being an American in the past has never been a matter of ancestry. The mainstream American ideology is focused on the idea of the melting pot.   The melting pot does not involve the role of ancestry because of the use of the concept of assimilation, whichis crucial for American national ide ntity. Ancestry does not form Americanism. The Slaves’ Petition for Freedom to the Massachusetts Legislature of 1777 points out to the fact that Americanism, originated from the colonists’ revolutionary struggle against the political power of   Britain,   involved a wide range of issues regarding justice, equality and human rights. According to the Slaves’ Petition, â€Å"enslaved people throughout the colonies seized upon the rhetoric of liberty and equality to point out the contradiction of fighting Great Britain over principles not fully followed by the colonies themselves; they also appealed to Christian precepts.†3 Actually, being an American in the past has never been a matter of ancestry because of the various identities formed into a single American identity. For example, African Americans (former slaves), Asian Americans (immigrants), Italian Americans (immigrants), Native Americans (aboriginals) and other groups are united to form American n ation. In addition, American national identity is idealized social destiny of many groups of population. American people are hold together due to common ideals, and the lack of a common origin or ancestry cannot affect the development of American nation. Americans adhere to the ideals of democratic society. They have always fought for the establishment of equal human rights and the abolishment of slavery. During the period of the Great Depression, homelessness appeared as the result of economic crises, but it had nothing common with the matter of ancestry. According to researchers, â€Å"the homeless man – the tramp, the hobo, the vagrant – became alternately the embodiment of rugged American individualism and a metaphor for social disorder.†Besides, being an American in the past has never been a matter of gender. According to Ellen DuBois, the American women’s suffrage movement originated from the public protest meeting that was held in Seneca Falls, New York, in July 1848. The major goal of this historic meeting was to join the right of women with men’s rights in their privileges, including voting rights. The impact of the Civil War and Reconstruction epoch on gender issues was enormous. In 1860, the right to vote had become the primary concern of the women’s rights movement. The Fourteenth Amendment addressed the issue of gender inequalities. However, it did not affect Americanism, because both man and women considered themselves Americans. Women fought for their rights, and their struggle was part of American identity. According to researchers, â€Å"an independent movement of women for women turned the campaign for suffrage into a continuing source of activism and political sophistication for coming generations of women.†5 Although there were some difficulties in recruiting women after WWII, because women in military were regarded as â€Å"prostitutes and cross-dressers†, that issue did not affect Am erican ideals of democracy and freedom  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Moreover, being an American in the past has never been a matter of race. Racial issues had been raised in America since the adoption of the Constitution. From the historical perspective of reforms in America, â€Å"there were continuities, shifts, and discontinuities after the Civil War.†Ã‚  During the Civil War and the Reconstruction era, racial issues had a strong impact on society, but the principle of Americanism, as the basis of democracy, had always been one of the major goals of the American struggle in any historical period.   This struggle had always been aimed at establishing democracy and providing equal opportunities to all citizens, both Northerners and Southerners.I completely agree with the fact that being an American in the past has been a matter of heart and mind. American national identity is used to highlight the construction of a unified nation, which includes various raci al and ethnic groups. Americans are unified based on the established principles of Americanism, which reflects democratic ideals. Good Americans are those people who demonstrate loyalty to their country, as well as the desire to live in democratic society, enjoying freedom and equal rights. Multiculturalism is the result of ethnic and racial self-assentation in America. Actually, the national ideology created by Americanism is flourishing now, reflecting the progressive ideas of Americanism and playing an important role in shaping the future of American nation.Conclusion  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Thus, it is necessary to conclude that being an American in the past has been a matter of heart and mind because of the uniqueness of American ideology and the emergence of Americanism, but being an American in the past has never been a matter of race, gender or ancestry. Revolutionary tradition in America reflects Americanism and the established American ideals. The natio nal ideology is flourishing in the U.S. due to the progressiveness of Americanism. It plays a crucial role in shaping the future of American nation and its ideals.

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

PRESSURE GROUPS & THEIR EFFECTS Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words - 1

PRESSURE GROUPS & THEIR EFFECTS - Essay Example In all cases, pressure groups use a wide variety of tactics to try to bring about change in governments and corporations. Some of the groups insist on staying within the laws of the nations in which they operate. They raise funds, educate and lobby members of government to enact laws that support their views. In non-democratic countries, this is often not possible because the very existence of the pressure group may be illegal. Other pressure groups seek to bring attention to their cause by creating legal public displays such as marches and rallies. By doing this, they hope to generate interest in their group and their cause that will result in greater public awareness and increased membership (Utting). Sometimes these marches and rallies are legal and sometimes they break laws such a permit violations or obstructing public places. If they turn violent, inciting riotous behavior laws can be brought to bear against these groups. Other pressure groups flagrantly break the law as a mean s of drawing attention to their cause. They will trespass, vandalize and defame as a means of swaying public opinion. While many various tactics can be used by pressure groups, one thing these groups cannot do is force any corporation or government to change. They must influence the population in free and oppressed states around the world to achieve their goals. This paper will examine the goals and tactics of three pressure groups that are currently active in the United Kingdom and in some cases, around the world. One public pressure group is the Open Spaces Society. This group works to protect common land, pathways, right of ways and village greens from encroachment and blockage. This group is a very good example of a decentralized pressure group that acts locally and entirely within the law. A brief history of the group is essential to understanding how they operate and why they use the tactics they do. The

Monday, February 10, 2020

Mangmnt 3010 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Mangmnt 3010 - Essay Example The company can maintain itself through the effect of the implementation of this leadership style by hiring new employees. So, if the company engages in mere routine and unskilled jobs, it is easy to hire new employees without ill effects to company management and production. The tactical plan and actions to address Autocratic Leadership has its basic foundation in ensuring that the leadership style suits company goals and the company’s capacity to maintain such leadership style. From this, other plans may arise to ensure employee loyalty. This system of rewards has been proven as a good means to keep employees under control. A system of rewards as defined by a business dictionary as â€Å"procedures, rules, and standards associated with allocation of benefits and compensation to employees† may be put into play. The company can devise steps for the giving of incentives, bonuses, and benefits to those who will continue to work well and obey management. Rewards may also b e given for employees who continue to stay with the company, perhaps a bonus for every three year anniversary. A government agency, NASA, defines employee relations as â€Å"involving the body of work concerned with the maintenance of employer-employee relationships that contribute to satisfactory productivity, motivation, and morale.† This leaves no room for conflict or problems between co-employees and management. Management must ensure and maintain employees happy, creative and enthusiastic. By keeping employees in such a state, they will work better for the interests of the company. It is for this reason that the Florida Atlantic University promotes the creation of a positive environment and relationships based on good management practices and workplace behaviors. There are courses of action to create a positive environment and

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Martin Luther King speech Essay Example for Free

Martin Luther King speech Essay I think Martin Luther King’s speech make the strongest argument when Martin Luther King once said, I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin, but by the content of their character. This saying rang towards the steps of the Lincoln Memorial to the eager, listening ears of people who wanted reform. August 28, 1963, marked the day when Martin Luther King Jr. had changed more than just Washington. More than America. He had envisioned a life where everyone would be considered equal, and everyone would prosper. He had begun to change the world. This historic event took place 48 years ago, and many alterations in society have occurred since then. If Martin Luther King Jr. had never been born, however, racism and segregation would still exist and even burgeon. Martin Luther King Jr. was the exemplar for civil rights, the paragon of justice. Without him, life would be malevolent for me, an Indian from the hot, arid land where the Ganges runs free and nature is all-abundant. There would be no variety in America. The majority would constantly rule over the minority and tensions would erupt. Martin Luther King Jr. gave the minority a voice of reason and hope. When King spoke, he reached peoples hearts and minds at the same time. He dug down deep into issues of racial discrimination and presented alternatives of love and equality. Racists struck down his ideas, but others were moved and worked to better society as he wished. King was a loving man, one that wished people would listen and follow him but he did not force them. If Martin Luther King had never been born we would have never been able to, as a nation, act as a role model to help these countries on their quest to become industrialized nations. America would become full of arrogance, and we would not participate in national affairs with an open mind. The Declaration of Independence, a document which we hold in our hearts so fervently, summarizes Martin Luthers Kings purpose in life: We hold these truths to be self-evident that all men are created equal. Today, all men are indeed created equal, but would that have been recognized without this man who went against the norms of society and rose in the ranks

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Book Report on Lord of the Flies by William Golding Essay -- Lord of t

Book Report on Lord of the Flies by William Golding The following report is on William Golding’s Lord Of The Flies. The book itself is 208 pages. The topics that will be covered are a brief summary, type of chronology used, evaluation of character development, type of conflicts, themes, writers styles, and personal opinions. This novel takes place on a boat like shaped island. There is a jungle, beach, and a lagoon. There are pigs and fish that they can eat, and different fruits. This novel is about several young boys trying to survive on this island after their plane crashed. They have to work together in order to survive. There aren’t any grown ups around. Ralph and Piggy are the first to appear after the crash. Ralph finds a conch shell and blows into it hoping to get the attention of the other survivors. When they get around in a circle, they elect Ralph as the chief. Jack gets upset and this begins the conflict between Jack and Ralph. Jack decides that he and his choir, now called â€Å"hunters† want to go out and hunt for food. On his first attempt, he fails. One of the boys mentions that there is a beast on the island. Nobody paid too much attention to him, but in the back of their minds they knew there had to be something out there. Ralph decides that they need a fire so that ships can rescue them. They use Piggy’s glasses to start the fire. Each of the boys were told to watch out for ships but they decided to play instead so they missed their opportunity to be rescued earlier. Jack and his â€Å"hungers† have become obsessed with hunting and killing. They painted their faces and finally killed a pig. Finally Jack breaks away from Ralph’s leadership and he tells the others to follow him. He killed another pig and put the head of the pig on a stake, which symbolized The Lord Of The Flies. While Jack and the â€Å"hunters† were roasting the pig, Simon finds a dead man hanging from the rocks wearing a parachute. When he ran to tell the boys they mistaken him for the beast and kill him. Now only Ralph, Piggy and the twins remain together. The fight for leadership reaches a climax when Jack turns violent. The hunters stole Piggy’s glasses, broke the conch, stole the twins and Roger ends up killing Piggy by throwing a boulder at him over the edge. Jack wanted to kill Ralph then, but Ralph ran into the woods to hide. ... ...itions, our ideals, values, and the basics of right and wrong are lost. Another theme is that people often single out others to give themselves security. This happened a lot with Piggy, which wasn’t fair. The boys definitely singled him out and Piggy knew what was happening. I liked Golding’s style. It was fast moving, smooth, and I was able to understand what he was writing for the most part. He used good word choices when talking about a scene. In the first scene, when the boys were talking about how wonderful the island was, Golding used words like â€Å"thorns† and â€Å"Creeper† to tell us that the island wasn’t very friendly at all. He also uses good imagery. The point of view was usually objective, but was sometimes omniscient, showing the thought of only one character at a time in the scene. Most of the story is told through the eyes of the boys, but sometimes it changed to the viewpoint to that of the author. The age level that this book would be best suited is 12 and older. I think that boys would enjoy it more just for the fact that it is a book based on all boys. The only thing in the story that bothered me was the killings of the two young boys.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Homeless Veterans Essay

Abstract Homelessness has always existed in the United States, but only in recent years has the issue become a more prevalent and noticeable phenomenon. Homeless veterans began to come to the attention of the public at the same time. News accounts chronicled the plight of veterans who had served their country but were living (and dying) on the streets. The Department of Veterans Affairs estimates about 250,000 veterans are homeless on any given night. (2012, pg. 4) My research will examine how homelessness is impacting our veterans and what interventions are available to homeless veterans. Introduction Whether it is wartime or peacetime, the men and women who serve our country live an unusual life style. Whether it is in the barracks or in the fields, military personnel form close alliances and bonds, which are necessary because they must depend on one another for survival. Once these veterans return home from the Gulf, Iraq or Afghanistan war or even if they just decide to discharge honorably, they face a whole new set of problems. These problems can be as small as reintegrating with their family, finding a job or finding a place to live. An ongoing problem that our veterans learn to cope with is how to deal with combat issues such as physical and mental disabilities. Today’s veterans find that he/she has more difficulty because they are not looked at in the way veterans were looked upon in the past. America’s patriotism has changed. Men were drafted into the military with the promises for a better future because they served their country. The country got behind them because they were fighting a World War. But Vietnam was the turning point for our veterans and upon their return home, they became society’s problem. Many young veterans who returned home were between 18 – 31 years old. Some were physically wounded and some were physically disabled. These veterans were sent home to our veterans hospitals for treatment. There were also those who had mental health issues and some help  was given to them but not enough. Veterans were discharged much too quickly. Where were these veterans to go? Many tried to reintegrate into society by securing housing (apartment or room) and others tried to move back home with their families. However, many veterans faced considerable challenges as a result of their physical disabilities and PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder). This caused many veterans to become homeless. First, society could not deal with veterans up close and personal and second, another reason was because the war haunted many veterans every day (PTSD). Therefore, for some veterans, they would rather live on the streets because they actually felt safer. According to data from Department of Veterans Affairs office of Inspector General, â€Å" veterans who became homeless after military separation were younger, enlisted with lower pay grades and were more likely to be diagnosed with mental disor ders at the time of separation from active duty.† (2012, pg. 4) Our veterans are our most important resource. We (Americans) do not live in a closed world anymore and when trouble comes to our shores, it is our veterans we depend upon to defend us. Our military is voluntary at this time and society and our government should protect and preserve their lives because without the veterans who would we count on? The military that protects us are strong, well trained, intelligent men and women who are willing to lay their lives on the line for their country. And for that reason, they deserve our respect, our support and our care. The social worker plays a major role in helping the veterans to stay connected to family and their community. The social worker’s role is to help the veteran and his family to access all resources that can be beneficial to the veteran’s recovery and a smoother re-entry back into his/her life. My research will attempt to answer the following questions: How common is homelessness among veterans?  What are the risk factors: gender, age, race and ethnicity, disability and how does it impact housing placement? What interventions are provided to address veteran homelessness? Do female veterans feel more isolated? Literature Reviews: Comparison of Outcomes of Homeless Female and Male Veterans in Transitional Housing Homelessness among female veterans is of national concern but few studies have been conducted on regards to how homelessness among female veterans differs from male veterans. The healthcare of female veterans has become an important priority for the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) as female veterans represent one of the fastest growing groups of new VA healthcare users. Studies have shown female veterans are less healthy and are in poorer mental health compared to male veterans, which has been attributed to barriers for women in accessing VA health services and allegations that the VA is male-dominated and not attentive enough to the needs of women (MacGregor et al. 2011: Weiss 1995, pg. 705). Homelessness among female veterans is a central issue as the VA strives to end homelessness among all veterans. Although women constitute about 8% of sheltered homeless veteran population, that number is expected to increase and women veterans have been found to be at higher risk of being homeless than their male counterparts (U. S. Department of Housing and Urban Development & U. S. Department of Veterans Affairs 2009, pg. 705). The literature on homeless female veterans is small with only two previous studies identified in a comprehensive review. One study concluded that risk of homelessness is two to four times greater for women veterans (Gamache et al. 2003, pg. 706), and the other study found that compared to homeless male veterans, homeless female veterans are younger, less likely to be employed, more likely to have a major mental illness, but less likely to have a substance abuse use disorder (Leda et al. 1992, pg. 706). A small case-control study also found that sexual assault during military service, being unemployed, being disabled and having physical and mental health were risk factors for homelessness among female veterans (Washington et al. 2010, pg. 706). In the current study, the data used came from multi-site outcome study of homeless veterans enrolled in VA-funded transitional housing services (McGuire et al. 2011, pg. 706), through cross-sectional comparisons of homeless male and female veterans at the time of entry into transitional housing and examining outcomes 12 months after discharge. It is further hypothesized that, due to suggestions that there may be increased barriers for female veterans in accessing VA health services, female veterans would have worse outcomes than their male counterparts after transitional housing. Traumatic Stressor Exposure and Post-Traumatic Symptoms in Homeless Veterans  The Department of Housing and Urban Development (Carlson et al. 2012, pg. 970) recently reported that 13% of all homeless persons were veterans and an estimated 63,000 veterans were homeless on one night in January 2012. High rates of mental health problems have been reported in military and veteran populations. These problems may be related to trauma exposure and contributing to homelessness. Approximately 70% of homeless veterans have substance abuse issues and 45% are diagnosed with mental illness. (Carlson et al. 2012, pg. 970) Combat exposure has been found to increase risk for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which in turn, is thought to increase risk for homelessness. One study examining the rates of PTSD pre- and post deployment in a combat unit found that rates of PTSD increased from 9.4% to 18%, suggesting that exposure to combat raised the prevalence of PTSD in the unit (Hoge et al. 2004). Military veterans may also have an elevated risk of PTSD as a result of noncombat military stressors, such as dangerous or unstable conditions, witnessing injury, death or atrocities. Military trauma exposure puts individuals at risk for both PTSD and homelessness, but it is less clear whether civi lian trauma exposure increases risk for PTSD and homelessness in veterans. In a study of Vietnam veterans, both PTSD and exposure to combat and other war-related atrocities indirectly increased risk for homelessness, whereas interpersonal violence, and other types of nonmilitary trauma appeared to have direct effects on risk for homelessness (Carlson t al. 2013, pg. 970). A better understanding of the types of trauma that homeless veterans are exposed to could help identify veterans at increased risk for PTSD and homelessness and inform treatment (Carlson et al. 2013, pg. 970). Homeless Veterans of the All-Volunteer Force: A Social Selection Perspective The dramatic increase in urban homelessness in the United States has included large numbers of veterans. As with other Americans, poverty, alcohol, drugs, mental illness and social isolation have been documented as the primary risk factors for homelessness among veterans. As would be expected of an age cohort effect, in 1986 – 1987 the overrepresentation was highest among veterans of ages twenty to th irty-four, and in 1996 the odds of being a homeless veteran were highest among veterans aged thirty-five to forty-four (Tessler et al. 2003, pg.509) In this article, the explanatory factors all derive from a social selection perspective that refers to the idea that individuals with personal  characteristics that would later put them at risk for homelessness were recruited to military service in disproportionate numbers during the early years of the all-volunteer force (AVF). Culturally Competent Social Work Practice with Veterans: An Overview of U. S. Military If social workers are to serve veterans effectively and efficiently, a basic understanding of the United States military is essential. Despite a longstanding and intimate relationship between social workers and veterans, the profession has been criticized for the lack of veteran-specific practitioner resources. The literature has been characterized as providing little practical guidance while universities and professional organizations failed to develop and incorporate the curriculum, information and tools needed to prepare social workers to serve this special population (Savitsky et al. 2009, pg. 863). Recently more information seems to be revolving with additional resources becoming available through social work journals, the development of advanced practice standards for military social workers, as well as academic course and degree specializations focusing on military social worker (Zoroya, 2009, pg. 864). The common theme has been the importance of military cultural competency. The acknowledgment of military culture is complex and not well understood by civilians and continues to impact veterans after discharge. This article presents information in anticipation of a Department of Veteran Affairs funded research project with veterans experiencing homelessness. Also, the article presents a structural and historical overview of the United States military, the propensity to enlist in armed forces, military culture and training methods and outcomes. It concludes with a discussion of implications for social work practice. Generally, military culture differs from the larger society in the United States as it is paternalistic and maintains a strict hierarchy. The military is characterized by a collectivist approach; encouraging interdependency; group orientation and group cohesion. Highly criticized qualities of military culture include misogyny and homophobia. The integration of females into armed forces has been hampered by fear of cohesiveness among males would be undermined. Experience indicates servicewomen are no more vulnerable to stress than servicemen and are able to complete physical tasks required of them. Unfortunately, women are subject to gender-based bias, stereotypes and harassment, both mental and physical. Alarming incidences of sexual  harassment and sexual violence has increased in the military. A 2004 survey indicates 52% of women experienced sexual harassment while serving; 10% did not feel it would do any good and 42% feared they would suffer adverse consequences (Zeiger & Gunderson, 2005. Pg. 867). Although changing with the repeal of Don’t’ Ask, Don’t Tell, the military has been strongly criticized for banning homosexuals from serving opening (Herek & Belkin, 2006. Pg. 867). Reason being it would undermine unit bonds and effectiveness and that privacy could not be provided. Ultimately, it is important to note that the attitudes of heterosexual servicemen and women may not have been as biased against homosexuality as previously thought. The belief that gays be allowed to openly serve in the military had increased in recent years, indicating the obsta cle to integration was not the attitudes of servicemen and women, but of military tradition. Social workers encounter veterans in public and private practice and effectively serving them demands military cultural competency. Social worker must have a foundation of general understanding of the larger military, its basic history and the complimentary roles played by the different branches (Petrovich, 2012. pg. 871). Veterans will have divergent service experiences and their opinions regarding service could vary widely. The more the social worker knows, this will help develop rapport with the clients, facilitate a more individualized understanding of their service history and other relevant areas. In the end, it is likely that veterans experience ambivalence regarding military culture and service experience and some military-oriented traits may be viewed as problematic in civilian life. However it’s important for the veteran and the social worker to explore and interpret these issues with respect the veteran’s sense of affiliation with and attachment to the military (Petrovich, 2012. pg. 872). Thus, a review of the literature has revealed helpful information about: How common is homelessness among veterans? What are the risks factors: gender, age, race, and ethnicity and disability and its impact? What interventions are provided to address this homeless problem among veterans? Do female homeless veterans feel more isolated? This research study will examine the impact of these four research questions  from the most recent data from the Veteran Affairs transitional housing programs. Specifically this study hypothesizes that participants in the different VA-funded transitional housing services will: Is the rate of homelessness increased and/or decreased between homeless female and male veterans? Are there increased barriers for female veterans in accessing VA services, in which female veterans would have worse outcomes than male counterparts after transitional housing? Sampling The research approach that will be utilized for my chosen topic is qualitative research. Qualitative research is flexible; it uses open-ended questions in interviews, participant observations and is often the best fit for diverse and at-risk populations such as homeless veterans whereas quantitative methods involve analysis of numbers; structured surveys, observations and examines existing information/reports. Also, in qualitative research, the research methods are not as dependent upon the sample sizes as in quantitative methods. Methodology Three major forms of VA-funded transitional housing service for homeless veterans will be included in this study: the health care for homeless veterans (HCHV) program; the grant and per diem (GPD) program and the domiciliary care for homeless veteran program (DCHV). The first two programs provide assistance to veterans through contracts with or grants to community service providers while the DCHV provides service directly through the VA staff at the local VA facility. Data were collected for a prospective, naturalistic study to compare these three transitional housing services across five different VA administrative regions (North, South, East, Wets and Mid-West). The study focused on 59 female participants and 1181 males. The female participant were Black (53%) or White (41%) and had a mean age of 43.89 years; while the majority of male participants were Black (59%) or White (35%), and had a mean age of 48.13 years. This information utilizes the variable of value (gender) and the constant (homelessness). Age is variable that can be measured by asking the participants to write down their age in the blank space. Procedures The data collection was conducted from May 2002 through September 2005.  Independent evaluators recruited, consented and conducted baseline and follow-up interviews with veterans in the transitional housing programs. Intake interviews were conducted before entering VA housing program, baseline interviews completed after admission and follow-up interviews were conducted 6 and 12 months after program discharge. Participation rate was very high (99.16%), and each participant gave informed consent. They were paid $10 for baseline interview and $25 for each follow-up interview. Measures When doing the initial intake interview, a paper form would be used to gather information from the participants to document their socio-demographic characteristics, combat exposure, housing and work history, psychiatric diagnoses, brief hospitalization history and a assessment of mental and physical health status. At baseline interview, participants were asked to complete a measure of the social climate of their residential care service. At follow-up interviews, a series of measures were administered to participants to assess: Housing: They were asked how many days in the last 30 days they have slept in different types of places such as housed (room or apartment) somebody else’s apartment; days in an institution (hospital, hotel or jail) and days homeless. Income and Employment: They were asked about their current employment pattern and classified as employed or unemployed; number of days they worked for pay and their employment income in 30 days. Also how much money they received from disability and public assistance. Substance Abuse Status: Alcohol and drug use in the past month. General Physical and Mental Health Status: Medical conditions were assessed with 12 questions that asked participants yes/no whether they had any of 12 common serious medical problems (e.g. hypertension, liver disease, cardiovascular problems, and orthopedic problems). Also includes an 8-item psychiatric composite scale which was used to assess general mental health status. Quality of Life: General quality of life and quality of social life were assessed. Residential Social Climate: At baseline, participants were asked to rate their perceptions of the treatment environment of their residential care program. Findings At intake the female participants were significantly younger; report more  psychiatric symptoms, more likely to be diagnosed with mood disorders, has shorter histories of homelessness and less likely to be working than male veterans. Male participants were reported to have higher risk factors of homelessness due to substance abuse (70%) and PTSD (45%) due to combat exposure. Between one to six months in transitional housing services, both genders were showing improvement on employment income and overall psychiatric scores. At six months, female participants showed some decrease in employment and an increase in their psychiatric scores whereas the male participants continued to show improvements. After a one year period, female participants showed improvement in housing, employment and incomes, substance abuse use and general physical and mental health and quality of life compared to male participants. This suggests that homeless female veterans can benefit as much from transitional housing services as male veterans. Transitional housing programs and shelter have been predominantly male environment focused on serving men, in the VA context. But this study found that, after adjusting for multiple comparisons, there were no differences in how homeless male and female veterans perceived the social climate of their transitional housing program or in their overall clinical benefits. These findings suggests that VA efforts to improve services for women may be successful, but need to continue. Limitations One limitation of this study is the small sample size of homeless female veterans. Also we were not able to differentiate between female veteran who are caring for dependent children and those who were not. Validity is a standard that determines whether an instrument measures what it is supposed to measure and whether it measures it accurately. Accuracy is the key issue. Because of small sampling of female veteran participant, the question of dependent children was a valid observation. Reliability is the second key standard in determining if a measure is satisfactory. Reliability refers to the internal consistency of the measure. Dudley states that the connection between validity and reliability is triangulation. Triangulation is a process of using multiple methods to measure one concept. If it is determined that the results of one measure of the same variable are similar to the results from another measure of the same variable, they are triangulating the findings. They are deemed to be both valid and reliable  because they have similar results. (Dudley, 2011). Bibliography Carlson, Eve B., Garvert, Donn W., Macia, Kathryn S., Ruzek, Josef I., Burling, Thomas A. (2013). Traumatic Stressor Exposure and post-Traumatic symptoms in Homeless Veterans. Military Medicine, Vol. 178, 9:970-973. Dudley, J.R. (2011). Research Methods for Social Work. Second edition. Boston: Pearson Education. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. Gamache, G., Rosenheck, R., & Tessler, R. (2003). Overrepesentation of women veterans among homeless women. American Journal of Public Health, 93(7), 1132-1136. Herek, G. M., & Belkin, A. (2006). Sexual Orientation and Military Service: Prospects for organizational change and individual change in the United States. In T. W. Britt, A. B. Adler, & C. A. Castro (Eds.), Military Life: the Psychology of serving in Peace and Combat (pp. 119-142). Westport, CT: Praeger Security International. Hoge CW, Castro, CA, Messer SC, McGurk D, Cotting DI, Koffman RL. Combat duty in Iraq and Afghanistan, Mental Health Problems, and Barriers to Care. New England Journ al of Medicine; 351(1): 13-22. Leda, C., Rosenheck, R., & Gallup, P. (1992). Mental illness among female veterans. Hospital & Community Psychiatry, 43(10), 1026-1028. MacGregor, C., Hamilton, A. B., Oishi, S. B., & Yano, E. M. (2011). Descriptive, development, and philosophies of mental health service delivery for female veterans in the VA: A qualitative study. Women’s Health Issues, 21(4), S138-S144. McGuire, J. F., Rosenheck, R. A., & Kasprow, W. J. (2011). Patient and program predictors of 12-month outcomes for homeless veterans following discharge from time-limited residential treatment. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research,38, 142-154. Petrovich, James. (2012). Culturally Competent social work Practice with Veterans: an Overview of the U. S. Military. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 22:863-874. Routledge: Taylor & Francis Group Savitsky, L., Illingworth, M., & DuLaney, M. (2009) Civilian Social Work: Serving the military and veteran populations. Social Work, 54(4), 327-339. Tessler, Richard, Rosenheck, Robert and Gamache, Gail. (2003). Homeless Veterans of the All-Volunteer Force: A social Selection Perspective. Armed forces & Society, Vol. 29, No. 4, pp. 509-524. Tsai, Jack, Rosenheck, Robert A. and McGuire, James F. (2012). Comparison of Outcomes of Homeless Female and Male Veterans in Transitional Housing. Community Mental Health Journal, 48:705-710. United States Department of Housing and Urban Development, & United States Department of Veterans Affairs. (2009). Veteran Homelessness: A supplemental report to the 2009 annual homeless assessment report to Congress. Washington, DC: US Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Community Planning and Development: US Department of Veterans Affairs, National Center on Homelessness Among Veterans. Washington, D. L., Yano, E. M. Mcguire, J. F., Hines, V., Lee, M., & Gelberg, L. (2010).Risk factors for homelessness among women veterans. Journal of health Care for the Poor and Underserved. 21, 81-91. Zeigler, S. L. & Gunderson, G. G. (2005). Moving beyond G. I. Jane: Women and the U. S. Army. New York, NY: University Press of America. Zoroya, G. (2009, October 5). USA Today, p. 4a. More colleges develop classes on how to treat war vets.

Monday, January 6, 2020

The Life of a Social Worker - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 7 Words: 2006 Downloads: 1 Date added: 2019/03/18 Category Society Essay Level High school Tags: Social Work Essay Did you like this example? Description of Social Problem Social workers have made a commitment to advocating for and supporting individuals in need regardless of income, race, gender, and other identities (National Association of Social Workers [NASW], 2017). While this is a value of the profession, there is need for more social workers to support specific communities. For example, there seems to be consensus that public healthcare is unable to provide services to all of those in need, more specifically, those who are uninsured (Jacobson, Dalton, Berson-Grand, Weisman, 2005). Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "The Life of a Social Worker" essay for you Create order There is a disparity in life expectancy between whites and blacks, which has been attributed to segregation, discrimination, and a lack of access to healthcare that accounts for cultural and community differences (Orsi, Margellos-Anast, and Whitman, 2010). In Michigan, these communities include prison populations, low income communities, and migrant farmworkers (Siefort Pimlott, 2001; Shultz Skorcz, 2012; Ayoola et al., 2014; McCullagh et al., 2015). For example, in Detroit, MI, pregnant women in prison require support and education to reduce the high rates of infants born with major health complications (Siefert Pimlott, 2001). Similarly, this issue is not localized to Detroit. Another city in Michigan that experiences high infant mortality rates, specifically for black individuals, is Flint, MI (Shultz Skorcz, 2012). Furthermore, previous research discusses the higher likelihood of women to use poor contraceptive methods in low income communities, particularly if they belong to an ethnic minority (Ayoola, Zandee, Johnson, Pennings, 2014). Pregnant women in prison are more likely to give birth to infants with poor health outcomes, often because of a lack of education and prenatal care (Siefert Pimlott, 2001). Additionally, these women are criminalized, particularly, if they are found to use substances, which is due in part to the construction of the social problem of crack babies (Siefert Pimlott, 2001; Lyons Rittner, 1998). The construction of the crack baby phenomenon criminalized black women, instead of accounting for other factors that may have negative impacts on the health of their children (Lyons Rittner, 1998). While there was a program called Women and Infants at Risk (WIAR) initiated to educate and provide these women with access to care and resources, this program is ultimately selective in nature (Siefert Pimlott, 2001). Women must meet requirements to access these benefits such as having a sentence that is two years or less, no violent charges, and they can not have drug charges that exceed a certain amount on their person (Siefert Pimlott, 2001). However, this problem does not only affect women prisoners, as research has reported a lack of education and contraceptive use among women in low income communities (Ayoola et al., 2014). Thus, research has demonstrated a need for more education and greater access to resources for low income women (Siefert Pimlott, 2001; Ayoola et al., 2004; Shultz Skorcz, 2012). While there is a necessity for social workers to address the education and health of pregnant women prisoners and low-income women, social workers also must prioritize advocating for migrant seasonal farmworkers. One issue preventing this population from receiving adequate healthcare, is the lack of cultural sensitivity from healthcare providers (Schim, Doorenbos, and Borse, 2005). It is essential for healthcare providers to integrate cultural norms and practices in treatment plans to provide the best care for their patients (Schim et al., 2005). Furthermore, migrant farmworkers face other barriers to accessing essential care such as the state residency requirement for Medicaid, which can make receiving health insurance more difficult because they work seasonally (McCullagh, Sanon, Foley, 2015). Additionally, they may be resistant to using the resources and support offered from services because it is unaffordable for them, or it interferes with their ability to work (McCullagh et al ., 2015). Migrant farmworkers often make low wages and are not provided with health insurance through their employment; thus, they have limited access to healthcare services even if they wanted to use them (McCullagh et al., 2015). Social workers also play a key role in connecting legal and medical professionals (Colvin, Nelson, Cronin, 2012). These social workers advocate for patients and ensure they are getting access to the care they need, often bridging the gap between the legal and medical professions (Colvin et al., 2012). Also, according to Spencer, Gunter, and Palmisano (2010) there is a lack of community health workers, who are essential for connecting low income communities to healthcare resources. However, they are not respected by other professions and are often underfunded; thus, their impact is limited (Spencer et al., 2010). Thus, previous research seems to demonstrate that low income communities are the most vulnerable and lack access to essential and culturally sensitive healthcare resources (Spencer et al., 2010). While there are programs in place to attempt to address these needs, they are often selective; thus, many individuals cannot access the benefits of these programs (Siefert Pimlott, 2001; McCullagh et al., 2015). Because of these barriers, social workers must advocate and address these issues so that these populations may access healthcare resources. Implications for Social Work The National Association of Social Workers Code of Ethics outlines several ethical guidelines that social workers are committed to following. One of these guidelines is the commitment, social workers challenge social injustice (NASW, 2017). Thus, social workers must advocate on behalf of these individuals to change social policies that prevent them from accessing the care and resources they need. Another key value is the expectation that social workers will acknowledge and respect cultural differences and help empower individuals to address their own needs (NASW, 2017). Therefore, it is imperative that social workers reform policies and address these concerns at the macro and micro levels, so vulnerable and at-risk populations can gain access to healthcare resources essential for survival. The United Nations Declaration of Human Rights also addresses the infringement on the rights of individuals in these communities. One human right is the ability to move and live in states as they so choose (United Nations, 1948, art. 13). However, the residency requirement of Medicaid infringes on this right as individuals must choose between healthcare and employment (McCullagh et. al, 2015). Additionally, another human right is the right to work in fair conditions for all individuals (United Nations, 1948, art. 23). However, migrant farmworkers often work in conditions without the proper knowledge or precaution to prevent health risks associated with employment (McCullagh et al., 2015). Also, another human right that is not being protected for these populations is the right to necessary healthcare (United Nations, 1948, art. 25). As stated by McCullagh et al. (2015), the lack of access to healthcare for farmworkers is an ethical and moral issue (McCullagh et al., 2015). Furthermore , the criminalization of pregnant women who use substances prevents access to the healthcare necessary to ensure their children are born healthy (Siefert Pimlott, 2001). The Role of Social Workers To begin to address the healthcare disparity experienced by low-income individuals, social workers must be aware of the historical context in which current policies were created. For example, the crack baby phenomenon was analyzed by Lyons and Rittner (1998) discussing the implications this social construct had on black women. Black women were punished, especially if their babies were born showing symptoms of addiction, rather than being offered support (Lyons Rittner, 1998). This pattern can be seen in the research conducted at the prison in Detroit that discussed the poor birth outcomes linked to a lack of prenatal care and education (Siefert Pimlott, 2001). On a macro level, social workers can come together to create programs such as the WIAR program, to provide resources and care for vulnerable populations (Siefert Pimlott, 2001). However, social workers must also ensure that these programs are not highly selective as this prevents many people that need care from accessing it (Siefert Pimlott, 2001). On a micro level, social workers can consider the implications that laws and policies have had on the individuals they are serving to better address their needs (McCullagh et al., 2015; Brownstein Allen, 2011). For example, community health workers are key in this role to help social workers connect with hard to reach communities (Spencer et al., 2010). Another approach to educating women to promote better health outcomes, is a community-based approach. Previous research has concluded that educating women on their bodies and changes they may experience with pregnancy as well as providing emotional support, helps promote healthier pregna ncies and infants (Ayoola et al., 2014). Community health workers are essential for providing access to care for underserved communities by educating healthcare providers on barriers these communities face such as language and cultural barriers (Brownstein Allen, 2011). While community health workers have been shown to be essential and effective in providing equal access to healthcare, they face obstacles such as a lack of funding and respect from other professions (Spencer et al., 2010). However, community health workers could benefit underserved communities greatly as seen in research conducted in Detroit, MI, which found that black men with diabetes experienced lower levels of distress after working with community health workers to gain more support from their healthcare providers (Spencer et al., 2006). Thus, it is essential for social workers to advocate for partnerships with community health worker programs, and for them to raise awareness on the support that can be provided by community health workers (Spencer et al ., 2010). Thus, previous research has shown a need for social workers to become more involved in reducing healthcare disparities in low-income communities (Siefert Pimlott, 2001; Ayoola et al., 2014; McCullagh et al., 2015; Spencer et al., 2010). Social workers must advocate for better education and support for pregnant women in prison to reduce the number of infants born with poor health (Siefert Pimlott, 2001). Furthermore, social workers need to advocate for and educate women in low-income communities to support better contraceptive methods among these populations (Ayoola et al., 2014). Also, social workers may reduce the disparities in healthcare by advocating for Medicaid reform and supporting migrant farmworkers in accessing the healthcare they need (McCullagh et al., 2015). References Ayoola, A., Zandee, G., Johnson, E., and Pennings, K. (2014). Contraceptive use among low income women living in medically underserved neighborhoods. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, Neonatal Nursing, 43(4), pp. 455-464. doi:10.1111/1552-6909.12462 Brownstein, J. N., and Allen, C. (2015). Addressing chronic disease through community health workers: A policy and systems level approach. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/dhdsp/docs/chw_brief.pdf Colvin, J. D., Nelson, B., and Cronin, K. (2012). Integrating social workers into medical-legal partnerships: Comprehensive problem solving for patients. Social Work, 57(4), pp. 333-341. Retrieved from: https://ezproxy.msu.edu.proxy2.cl.msu.edu/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.proxy2.cl.msu.edu/docview/1264493244?accountid=12598 Jacobson, P. D., Dalton, V. K., Berson-Grand, J., and Weisman, C. S. (2005). Survival strategies for Michigans health care safety net providers. Health Services Research, 40(3), pp. 923-940. oi:10.1111/j.1475-6773.2005.00392.x Lyons, P., and Rittner, B. (1998). The construction of the crack babies phenomenon as a social problem. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 68(2), pp. 313-320. Retrieved from: https://d2l.msu.edu/d2l/le/content/692043/viewContent/6488615/View?ou=692043 McCullagh, M. C., Sanon, M., and Foley, J. S. (2015). Cultural health practices of migrant seasonal farmworkers. Journal of Cultural Diversity, 22(2), pp. 64-67. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4778556/ National Association of Social Workers. (1999). Code of ethics of the National Association of Social Workers. Washington, DC. NASW Press. Orsi, J. M., Margellos-Anast, H., and Whitman, S. (2010). Black-white health disparities in the United States and Chicago: A 15-year progress analysis. American Journal of Public Health, 100(2), pp. 349-356. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2009.165407 Schim, S. M., Doorenbos, A. Z., and Borse, N. N. (2005). Cultural competence among Ontario and Michigan healthcare providers. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 37(4), pp. 354-360. doi:10.1111/j.1547-5069.2005.00061.x Shultz, C., and Skorcz, S. (2012). African American infant mortality and the Genesee County, MI REACH 2010 initiative: An evaluation of the undoing racism workshop. Social Work in Public Health, 27(6), pp. 567-603. doi:10.1080/19371910903253236 Siefert, K., and Pimlott, S. (2001). Improving pregnancy outcome during imprisonment: A model residential care program. Social Work, 46(2), pp. 125-134. Spencer, M. S., Kiefer, E. C., Sinco, B. R., Palmisano, G., Guzman, R., and James, S. A., et al. (2006). Diabetes-specific emotional distress and diabetes among African Americans and Hispanics with Type 2 Diabetes. Journal of Healthcare for the Poor and Underserved, 17(2), pp. 88-105. doi:10.1353/hpu.2006.0095 Spencer, M. S., Gunter, K. E., and Palmisano, G. (2010). Community health workers and their value to social work. Social Work, 55(2), pp. 169-180. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org.proxy1.cl.msu.edu/stable/23719973 The United Nations. (1948). Universal Declaration of Human Rights.